Kurnool district derives its name from its chief town Kurnool the capital of former Nawabs, Capital of Andhra Pradesh State from 1st October 1953 to 1st November, 1956 and at present the headquarters of the district. The name Kurnool is said to have been derived form “Kandanavolu”. The Boundaries of Kurnool district are Guntur and Nellore districts in the East, Ballary district in the West, Mahaboobnagar district in the North, Cuddapah and Anantapur districts in the South directions.
At present Kurnool District comprises 3 Revenue Divisions, 54 Revenue Mandals 53 Mandal Parishads, One Municipal Corporation , 3 Municipalities, 899 Gram Panchayats(Notified – 7, Non notified – 862 ) , 920 Revenue Villages and 615 Hamlet Villages.
Nallamalas and Erramalas are the two important mountain ranges in the district running in parallel from North to South. The Erramalas divide the district into two well defined tracts from East to West. Between Erramalas and Nallamalas lies the Eastern part of the district comprises Nandikotkur, Pagidyala,Kothapalli, amulapadu, Atmakur, Velgodu, Jupadu Bunglow, Midthur, BandiAtmakur, Gadivemula, Nandyal, Mahanandi, Panyam, Banaganapalli, Owk, Koilakuntla, Rudravaram and Chagalamarri Mandals. This tract is crossed by the crest of Krishna and Pennar, watershed at the North part of the Pagidyala mandal at about 1000 above the sea level. From this height the ground slopes to the South along the river Kundu till it traverses into Pennar valley. Major part of its tract is predominantly black cotton soils
During the 18th century Kurnool formed the jagir of a semi-independent Pathan Nawab, whose descendant was dispossessed by the British government for treason in 1838. The Nawab's former territory became a district of Madras Presidency, with Kurnool as its capital. The district surrounded the princely state of Banganapalle. After India's independence in 1947, Kurnool became part of the state of Madras, created out of the former Madras presidency, and Banganapalle was added to the district.
The eleven northern districts of Madras state became the new state of Andhra in 1953, and Kurnool served as the state's first capital. In 1956 Andhra Pradesh was formed by combining the Andhra State and Telangana region, formerly part of Hyderabad state. Hyderabad was made the capital of new enlarged state of Andhra Pradesh. Kurnool is the only city in India that is located in between two rivers: Tungabhadra and Hundri. The historic Konda Reddy Fort is located in the heart of Kurnool. This has an underground hidden pathway (swarang) of about 25 km to Allampur (a neighbouring town).
Adoni: The forest, once a stronghold of the vijayanagar empire, stands in ruins upon five rocky granite hills. two of these hills are each about 800feet in height. The Jamma Masjid in the town is a fine piece of Muslim architecture.
Ahobilam: The prahlada varada lakshminarasimha Temple is in Lower Ahobilam. The Nava Narasimha shrine, situated on a plateau 2,800 feet above sea level, is approached on foot.
Madhavaram: This village has an ancient gateway in ruins. the resemblance of the gateway of India in mumbai is, however, noticeable.
Sangameswaram Also known as Sapta Nadi Sangam, This is the sacred confluence of the Bhavanasi and krishna Rivers. This scenic spot has a temple with a wooden lingam. Thousands of pilgrims congregate here on Mahasivaratri day.
Thimmapuram: The shrine of Mahanandiswara and the surrounding temples attract pilgrims,admirers of architectural beauty and those who enjoy scenic loveliness. The annual temple festival is in Febuary - March.